About the site
- Names, origin, and rarity
- Field guides
- Online references
- About the author
For purposes of this site wildflowers are flowering plants,
other than trees, growing outside of cultivation.
All but a few pictures were taken in Delaware; the others are of plants that have been found in Delaware. Consulting The Flora of Delaware
I get the numbers below. About one-third of the total are represented on this site.
Scientific and common names shown on this site are taken from
The Flora of Delaware
Also from that source, and from the rare plant list, is species origin and rarity information as defined below.
||"A species that occurred in Delaware prior to European settlement,
or has migrated into the state independent of human activity."
The terms below are applied to native plants:
||State ranked S4 or S5; secure under present conditions.|
||"state ranked as S3, 21 - 50 known populations ...
not a high priority for conservation at this time"|
||Marked "Conservation Conern" in The Flora of Delaware.
Ranked as S1 or S2, 1 - 20 known populations.|
||Vulnerable to extinction; global rank G1, G2, or G3.|
||"not collected or reported for 15 or more years"|
||"no longer exists in Delaware"; its habitat is gone|
||"native to North America, but not to Delaware"|
||"not native to North America"
||Aggressive alien or adventive species that displace native vegetation.|
||These are non-native plants that are not widely established,
but may be found growing apparently uncultivated.
These species are not listed in The Flora of Delaware.|
||Status uncertain, or of uncertain nativity.|
Except where labelled differently, these pictures were taken at various locations
in New Castle County, Delaware.
Many were taken at
Delaware state parks
and at Middle Run Valley Natural Area.
All of the pictures on this website were taken with digital cameras.
Currently, a Nikon D90 is my big camera and I carry a Fuji XP10 on bike rides.
Other cameras are the Nikon D70; Coolpix 5000, S4, 2500, 990, and 900s; and the Epson PhotoPC 500.
On the computer I use PIE
to work with the images.
The Flora of Delaware, an Annotated Checklist
McAvoy, W., and K. Bennett
Delaware Natural Heritage Program, 2001
If you would like a copy, here is the order form.
There is also an online flora database, see below.
Herbaceous Plants of Maryland
Melvin L. Brown and Russell G. Brown
University of Maryland, 1984
Woody Plants of Maryland
Russell G. Brown and Melvin L. Brown
University of Maryland, 1972
Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada
Henry A. Gleason & Arthur Cronquist
The New York Botanical Garden, 1991
Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual
Noel H. Holmgren
The New York Botanical Garden, 1998
Plant Identification Terminology: An Illustrated Glossary
James G. Harris and Melinda Woolf Harris
Spring Lake Publishing, 2001
Wild Flowers of the United States (The Northeastern States)
Harold William Rickett
The New York Botanical Garden, 1966
Newcomb's Wildflower Guide
Little, Brown and Company, 1977
National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers
William A. Niering and Nancy C. Olmstead
Alfred A. Knopf, 1995
Wildflowers of Delaware and the Eastern Shore
Claude E. Phillips
Delaware Nature Education Society, 1978
National Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers (Eastern Region)
William A. Niering and Nancy C. Olmstead
Alfred A Knopf, 1979
A Field Guide to Wildflowers (Northeastern and North-central North America)
Roger Tory Peterson and Margaret McKenny
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1968
Wildflowers in the Field and Forest
Steven Clemants and Carol Gracie
Oxford University Press, 2006
All pictures and text on this web site (www.delawarewildfowers.org) are copyright David G. Smith.
(Contact information below.)
No part of the site is in the public domain.
Personal use of images
For instance, for wallpaper or a screen saver on your PC, or a school project --
feel free to use any of the pictures you want.
Other non-commercial use of images
Personal webpages or other not-for-profit uses -- I ask only that you mention my web site and its address or include a link to it.
Commercial use of images
Please e-mail me at the address below
telling me what image or images you want to use, and how.
I reserve the right to deny usage.
Use of images in print
The originals are all from digital cameras, as described above.
The largest are 3008 x 2000 pixels, or about 10 x 7 inches at 300 dpi.
is from Virginia and Tennessee,
and I was born in Kentucky,
but Delaware's been home most of my life.
I have no training in botany or photography; to support my hobby I am a computer programmer.
Here I am with a Cypripedium acaule.
You can contact me at
Thanks to Kay Lancaster, Rufino Osorio, Bill McAvoy, Karen Bennett,
Keith Clancy, and members of the GARDENS e-mail list.
Delaware Wildflowers main page